1. IL “CREDITO” UNIVERSITARIO NELLA LENTE GIURIDICA DELLO “SCAMBIO”
One group was told it was called the “Wall Street Game”, while another was asked to play the “Community Game”. It was the same game. But when it was called the Wall Street Game, the participants were consistently more selfish and more likely to betray the other players. There were similar differences between people performing a “consumer reaction study” and a “citizen reaction study”: the questions were the same, but when people saw themselves as consumers, they were more likely to associate materialistic values with positive emotions. (G. Monbiot, Forget ‘the environment’: we need new words to convey life’s wonders, The Guardian, 9 agosto 2017)
La logica è però quella del «do ut des»: faccio qualcosa affinché tu mi riconosca qualcosa (altrimenti non c’è interesse a metterla in pratica).
2. LE RADICI ETIMOLOGICHE DEL CREDITO UNIVERSITARIO: NASCITA E SVILUPPO DEL CONCETTO NEL SISTEMA STATUNITENSE
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
3. IL “CREDITO”, ESPRESSIONE DI UNA VISIONE DELL’UNIVERSITÀ LEGATA A DOPPIO FILO ALL’INDUSTRIA E AL CAPITALE
Il legame originario fra il credit system universitario e la logica aziendale funzionale allo sviluppo del capitale è dunque un fatto storico, prim’ancora che una valutazione politicamente consapevole.
4. IL PROGRESSIVO SUPERAMENTO DEL “CREDITO” NELL’ESPERIENZA CHE PER PRIMA LO HA FATTO SUO
Initiative in public matters is something that we have long ceased to expect from university students. A night shirt parade, a polyphonic college yell, fairly express the social limits of student responsibility. With materials at hand for that invaluable service which young and energetic idealism can give in public questions, most of our students remain, while in the university, in relative ignorance and apathy. This immaturity may be due in large measure to the high-school point of view in our universities. Although the supporters of the credits system undertake to justify its enforcement by the obvious immaturity of the American student, it may well be a factor of that immaturity. Where grades and credits are the object of collegiate endeavor, where courses consist of required systems artificially outlined facts, there can be but little of that vigor and responsibility so essential to the contact of inner life with outer reality. American university students in general are given too little opportunity to be artificially outlined facts, there can be but little of that vigor and responsibility so essential to the contact of inner life with outer reality. American university students in general are given too little opportunity to be responsible. [Educational News and Editorial Comment, The School Review, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Feb., 1920), pp. 81-94, spec. 84-85, The University of Chicago Press]
In the U.S., the move toward performance- or outcome-based educational programs in secondary and higher education could supplant the credit system in favor of forms of educational evaluation that assess what students “know and are able to do” rather than merely the number of credits or hours of instruction they have received. Such a shift may usher in a new set of practices for monitoring and evaluating students’ educational attainment focused more on “outputs” than “inputs” which in turn may pose a challenge to the continuing relevance of a credit-based system. [T. C. Mason, R. F. Arnove, M. Sutton, Credits, Curriculum, and Control in Higher Education: Cross-National Perspectives, Higher Education, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Jul., 2001), pp. 107-137, spec. 109]
5. L’EMULAZIONE TARDIVA DEL MODELLO USA DA PARTE DEI RIFORMATORI DELL’UNIVERSITÀ ITALIANA, SULLA SPINTA DI UN PROCESSO EUROPEO DOMINATO DAL MERCATO
“are not something that can simply be copied from other countries and then quickly implemented at home”, così, B. Chakroun, National Qualification Frameworks: from policy borrowing to policy learning, European Journal of Education, Vol. 45, No. 2, Human and Social Capital: Development for Innovation and Change (June 2010), pp. 199-216, spec. 206.
During the discussions, I made a more radical proposal. As learning throughout life gradually becomes a reality, all young persons could be allocated a study-time entitlement at the start of their education, entitling them to a certain number of years of education. Their entitlement would be credited to an account at an institution that would manage a ‘capital’ of time available for each individual, together with the appropriate funds. Everyone could use their capital, on the basis of their previous educational experience, as they saw fit. Some of the capital could be set aside to enable people to receive continuing education during their adult lives. Each person could increase his or her capital through deposits at the ‘bank’ under a kind of educational savings scheme. After thorough discussion, the Commission supported this idea, though it was aware of the potential risks, even to equality of opportunity. As things stand today, a study-time entitlement could be granted at the end of compulsory schooling, so as to enable adolescents to choose a path without signing away their future. [J. Delors, Learning: The Treasure Within, Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, Paris, 1996, p. 30, su cui in una ineludibile chiave critica a distanza di quasi un ventennio, ERF Paper No. 4: Revisiting Learning: The Treasure Within – Assessing the influence of the 1996 “Delors Report” (2013)].
6. SUL RAPPORTO FRA TECNICA E POLITICA: CHI DECIDE GLI OBIETTIVI DI CRESCITA CULTURALE ED ECONOMICA DI UN PAESE?
Tuttavia, per quanto pregnanti, queste considerazioni ancora non colgono appieno la reale essenza delle cose. Studiando storicamente e comparativamente l’impatto che le fondazioni filantropiche istituite dall’industria hanno esercitato sullo sviluppo dei sistemi di istruzione superiore negli Stati Uniti e altrove nel mondo, gli addetti ai lavori mettono a nudo, e non da oggi, qual è il vero tema chiave:
“What Weischadle [Weischadle, D.E. (1982). ‘The Carnegie corporation and the shaping of American eduational policy‘, in Arove, R. (ed.), Philanthropy and Cultural Imperialism: The Foundations at Home and Abroad. Bloomington: Indiana University)] and others [Arnove R.F. (ed.) (1982). Philanthropy and Cultural Imperialism: The Foundations at Home and Abroad. Bloomington: Indiana University Press] have identified and documented in their studies of philanthropic foundation influence on policy in the United States and elsewhere is ‘interlocking directorates’ or ‘networks of influence’ that have shaped, in particular, the organization, financing, content, and outcomes of higher education. Foundations with large sums of money have interacted with other powerful actors to set an agenda of what issues are most important and what approaches will be taken by whom to resolve pressing social, economic, and educational problems” [così, Mason, Arnove, Sutton, cit., spec. 130].
“chi decide quali siano le articolazioni organizzative che meglio servono le Università e gli studenti, e in ultima istanza gli obiettivi di crescita – culturale ed economica – del Paese?”
“We doubt that it is the international donor and technical assistance agencies that can best decide how to organize education in any one country especially according to a monolithic, totalizing paradigm based on market forces and a narrow definition of ‘economic rationality’ or efficiency. Efficiency is a means-ends calculation. Those ends need to be decided at the national level and within nation-states by those most engaged in the educational process. We find it objectionable that an elite group of individuals should decide economic, social, and education agenda for the rest” [così, Mason, Arnove, Sutton, cit., spec. 133].
A Workable Alternative to the Course-Credit System
First, a tutorial system would be required so that students might be helped in planning their programs and setting intermediate goals for themselves, and guided and stimulated in their studies. It would be required also to ensure a sufficiently well-developed acquaintanceship between faculty and students on which to base recommendations for degrees.
Second, attendance at class lectures would be voluntary and a higher proportion of class sections would be conducted as seminars. Educational experiences other than those provided by the colleges also would be encouraged.
Third, because of the closer contacts between students and faculty as human beings, and the responsibility of faculty members for the encouragement and evaluation of the student’s personal growth, more attention should be paid to personal characteristics in the selection of staff.
Fourth, library resources, facilities, and organization would have to be geared to a high quality of service.
Fifth, community resources should be tapped much more effectively than is usual.
Sixth, student-guidance services would need to be fully developed, and improvement in the techniques of rating personal characteristics would be necessary.
Seventh, all concerned should be perfectly clear, from the beginning, as to their responsibilities in the program and the conditions under which they are to work. Until the plan is widely adopted, therefore, particular attention should be paid to the orientation of students, faculty, and the public to the new scheme.